An Overview of Basel II – Back Testing Value at Risk

The Basel II Capital Accord, part of the wider banking regulatory accords issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS), was initially published back in June 2004 with the aim of helping to create an internationally uniform system for banking capital reserves. It has since been supported by a further accord – Basel III, which will be implemented in Europe under the Capital Requirements Directive IV.

Basel II dictates that banks must comply to new codes on banking law and control. Its main purpose, reported under the “three pillars” concept, is to encourage the advancement of risk management.

Basel II

The three pillars concept covers three core areas, which were partially, but not entirely, covered by the previous Basel I regulation:

Pillar 1 – covers minimum capital requirements.

Pillar 2 – demands a supervisory evaluation of capital competence.

Pillar 3 – covers market supervision and discipline.

Steps to guarantee Basel II assurance

In order for the regulators to be assured that the pillars are being adhered to, clients must show proof of systematic VaR Back Testing, which is the recommended form to evaluate market risk set by the Basel II Accord.

Value at Risk (VaR)

VaR represents the risk basis that forecasts what an investment portfolio speculates in terms of loss over a certain amount of time.

Back Testing

The back testing system compares the anticipated losses from VaR against the actual losses achieved within a certain time period. It allows firms to identify where VaR has been miscalculated, suggesting that a portfolio has suffered more than the original VaR estimate.

The VaR predictions will be based on the results of back testing in order to then polish the templates. The templates will, in turn, become more precise, and thus lower the danger of unforeseen deficits.

Who must comply?

The Basel II Accord’s guidance applies to all banks but its observance is in accordance to each bank’s fulfilment and relative demands throughout its jurisdiction.

Five points of Back Testing Value-at-Risk

To measure the capital charge within a model calculating market risk, there are five standards to follow:

1) Every three months data sets need to be upgraded

2) Daily calculations of VaR have to be worked out.

3) For the instant price shock, a ten day movement in prices needs to be in place.

4) 99th percentile, one-tailed confidence is to be applied.

5) For “historical” monitoring to occur, a minimum term of one year should be observed.

Forex Software: How to Buy Forex Software

Forex software is available today for very reasonable prices. However, you should learn how to buy forex software so you still find incredible bargains on quality trading systems.

Some simple buying tips for forex traders include the following:

• Of course, one sign that you are making the right choice on particular software is that it is highly regarded both on the Internet as well as off the Internet. If you choose a quality system to start with you will fare better than if you make a hasty decision otherwise.

• It is highly recommended that you make your selection based on multiple factors. For instance, there is foreign exchange robot software out there that can make your selections automatically. Certain automated tools make trades for you based on many different factors such as target market, household income, economic condition, or Internet proximity.

Forex Software

• Another suggestion is to buy forex software that is user-friendly. One in particular that I had recently learned about is the Ivybots. While it may not work for everyone, I myself am tempted to invest in it.

• Consider the return of investment expected and proven as you make your selection of automated and projection programs designed to help you trade. In the year 2008, the program mentioned above (Ivybot) generated an overall return, so the advertiser says, at least-of about 523%

• Finding a program that is very easy to install also helps tremendously. If you can find one that allows you to download it or plug it in for immediate installation and use that is the easiest. You do not need to be a computer whiz to use certain programs.

• Premium customer service provided by a caring customer service staff is always very helpful. This is often provided with some of today’s most popular and useful day trading software.

• If you are new to the currency exchange world, it may help you to sign up with automated services where you can deposit low sums of money. This will help you get started as you learn how to trade. Even better yet, it helps to find forex software that allows you to “practice” before “going live.”

• As you shop, you should also check with the regulations department close to where you live. This will ensure you trade within guidelines set by your local or national government. This should keep you from making illegal decisions while on the market.

Forex Software Trading Review: Forex News Software

One type of forex software keeps you updated on current trading activity. The function of computer programs such as Forex News Software is similar to the ticker tapes and news reports you see on Television or other video sources.

Forex News Software Components

Squawk box – This is the scrolling headlines similar to what you would see on some Internet video or television source. It is an instant update provided in real time to help you make the wisest trading moves possible. You receive new information up to eight times per hour, at a minimum of five times per hour.

Order board – This includes information based on hearsay pertaining to Fortune 500 companies transactions. It also shows activity based on major hedge funds. This is a great tool for finding out where the stops are on significant and sizeable investments or potential trading moves.

Forex News Software

Daily features – You can go here before making any trade. Reports here give a summary of previous activity. Likewise, they also help you keep on the lookout during current trading sessions. You can learn what is going on in all markets around the world-in North American, European, and Asian markets.

Trading outlook – This portion of Forex News Software helps you keep track of activity on seven major currencies. Therefore, you can keep track of transactions made involving the Yen, Euro, Swiss Franc, and British Pound. You can analyze the movements amongst these to help you make wiser trading choices.

Tech Levels & Analysis – Information you need which helps you more closely analyze 13 different currencies is lined up here. You can study various statistical aspects of trading such as moving averages, fibonachi retracement levels, RSI, and support/resistance.

Options-You can keep up with options quite nicely using this portion of the Forex News Software. Risk reversal pricing, volatility levels, and strategies are analyzed here. There is also a market commentary provided pertaining to trading activity, levels, and interests.

Global calendar and data bank – Quite a bit of information is provided here. You can find data pertaining to interest rates, economic numbers (stats), meeting dates and times, decision makers, and more.

M & A Flows – This section of a very useful computerized system helps you track various global economies. You can find out where in the world the condition of the economy is the best as well as where it is the worst. You can also analyze flows of funds that circulate around the world.

Strategy Reports -These are generated on a daily or weekly basis. In them is provided coverage on numerous strategy variations such as those pertaining to stops and limits. You also can refer to these for information on a variety of other market moves.

Pros and Cons
This is a very detailed service. However, it may be costly for some people. There is a free trial available to those who want to try it out before using it.

Purpose and Benefits of Online Forex Trading Software

Online Forex trading software has been created to make the exchange of foreign currency easier. Oftentimes, users of various online and computer-downloadable tool increase chance of making a profit.

The Purpose

Traditionally the practice of making Forex trades at times required use of very technical mathematical equations. This often placed limits on the type of people who could profit. However, this has changed especially since the use of the Internet.

Nowadays, many aspects of foreign currency statistics and calculations are automated. Since most of the complex figures are automatically generated, more people can participate in this financial market more readily.

Online Forex Trading Software

Benefits

The benefits of online and computer-based Forex trading software are many. Just take a look at the most important ones:

  • You can more quickly identify times in which you should make a move that could lead to a greater profit. You can also become more confident in making the right trades.
  • Various automated tools help you make more accurate calculations. This helps you plan your next move while you more accurately manage risk.
  • Sometimes you are even able to trade while you are away from your computer. A specific type of software called a “robot” or “bot” for short is what executes automated trades for you.
  • You are able to concentrate on more than one currency pair. While doing so, you can make predictions on trades based on varying conditions.
  • If you are just getting started with exchanging foreign currency, you have the option to practice. This is a function provided by some of the most reputable Forex online trading software developers and distributors.
  • You become accustomed to analyzing trades that will result in higher profit at minimal risk. This is all accomplished by way of proper support.
  • Certain tools help you keep updated by the minute (or even second). This is accomplished as you install functions on a browser as a toolbar or perhaps you download software that connects to the Internet and tracks current market prices and trends.

Recommendations

Some of the most helpful online Forex trading software and tools include risk and profit calculators, prediction statistics, and practice market tools. Research these to help you maximize your profits, and get your hands on every foreign exchange tutorial you can find. Of course, you are advised along the way to take certain precautions. One of these is to make sure you deal with brokers you trust.

How Does Forex Day Trading Work?

Forex day trading is one of the most promising opportunities for earning income in the Forex market today. Day trading systems focus primarily on what is happening in the market today not in days, weeks or even months to come.

The Forex market is the largest and most available financial market worldwide. Day trading systems lets a trader chose the best time to trade in the market. It also requires less money to be used to start out with. Many brokers allow accounts to be opened with $250 or less making it easier to be used by more people.

The primary function of day traders is to obtain the price swing. Each trading day in the Forex day system, the volume is determined by the different times when the separate markets are open and coincide with each other.

Forex Day Trading

The Forex currency trading amount stays at a high level but it generally peaks or reaches its highest point when European and American markets open simultaneously. This usually occurs between one and four pm mountain time.

Day trading happens when a trader busy a large amount of a foreign currency at a time and sells it as soon as the price rises for that day.

Because this type of transaction involves a large amount of risk it is not for everyone. For instance, if you cannot afford to lose the money you should not risk it as it is often likely that your losses could be great. Day trading is often more beneficial to those who aren’t totally dependent on the amount of money they are risking making it less of a risk overall. Even with this knowledge day trading systems can be quite promising and a large percentage of Forex trades are made in the form of day trades.

Before you move into the world of Forex day trading it is important that you understand the system as well as the basic fundamentals of the Forex techniques that are utilized.

Once you have learned these things you can then learn how to make trades on your own and not be dependent on anyone else. By doing this it will give you a greater sense of accomplishment because you will have the knowledge that whatever profits you turned you did so on your own by making your own decisions and taking your own risks. It is important to remember that day trading when done right can be quite profitable.

How To Choose the Right Forex Trading Software

Forex trading software is becoming more popular among traders as time goes by. One reason for this is the software’s ability to continue working even if you are not. There are several forex software programs available but it is important to choose the one that is right for you.

There are three important things to remember when choosing the right forex software for your trading needs. These three things include:

  • Good Security Measures
  • Proper Customer Support
  • Easy to Understand and Operate

These are the three most important things to remember when trying to determine which forex software you want to use.

Security

When choosing forex trading software it is important to pick one that uses good safety measures. This should be one of the first things you consider when making the decision of which one to use.

forex-trading-software

Customer Support

This is also a very important aspect of a good forex trading software program. This is especially important for beginners as you are most likely going to have lots of questions until you learn your way around the market and gain a little experience. For this reason it is important to choose software that has unlimited and constant customer support to answer those questions.

Easy to Understand

It is equally important to use software that is easy to understand and operate. Because most people are just learning this market it is going to be pointless to spend money on a good forex trading software program if it is too complicated for you to use and understand. If you don’t understand what is going on you will lose money quickly and in large amounts.

Although there are many forex software programs available it is important to know which ones are the most effective as well as the easiest to understand and operate. One such software program is Forex Tracer.

Forex Tracer has the ability to continue trading by automation making it effective even when you can’t be right there to monitor ever move that is made. This makes it easy to continually earn money and further increase your profits over manual trading alone.

It is recommended that you use the program on a trial basis for a few days before making a purchase to ensure that you understand how it works and that it is the right program for your trading needs. This goes a long way in determining your success rate.

MetaTrader 4 & 5 Online Forex Trading Software Review

I’ve been in the process of seeking out online Forex trading software. In the process, I stumbled upon information about MetaTrader 4 & 5.

MetaTrader 4

This software is made up of six main parts: The server, manager, administrator, data center, and client terminal, as well as mobile terminal.

Function-The main role of this software is to help serve over 10,000 traders with all of them working at the same time. This system is also designed to process many different financial symbols. Each main component of this program along with its convenient mobile trading and automated trading functions makes it perfect for financial markets.

MetaTrader 5 (2010 Release)

It is an advanced trading terminal that may have some benefit to you, depending upon your trading objectives. Keep in mind that this particular software may be more advanced, and meant more for seasoned investors and brokers.

metatrader5

Function-Meta Trader 5 is designed to help organize brokerage services. Therefore, all futures, currency, equity, and CFD market info is keep in tact. This is done so that you as a broker can offer your client great services.
Using this program, you can allow your clients to trade in multiple platforms. All this is done from one main account.

Note: This program is currently in the beta testing stage. The official release of it is in 2010. If you want to experience the beta testing software, you can download it via the MetaQuotes.com website.

Pros and Cons

The MetaTrader 4 as well as the upcoming 5th version are designed to be user-friendly. Yet, they have a very professional purpose. Furthermore, it is considered a highly flexible trading platform.

It has the power to enable all aspects of trading quite easily and efficiently. This software offers support in many different languages.

It seems to be one that has a positive report within the trading community as well. Some people have found it quite reliable. However, it may not be for everyone.

Consumer Responses

Consumers confirm that it is very easy to use. Non-advanced investors and traders can even use it. However, one user mentioned not receiving any support from the broker or developer. On the contrary, another user mentions not having any problems at all.

In spite of not a total 100% satisfaction rating, this product seems to work well overall. The discrepancies in users may be in using the beta tested version versus the live full version.

Price Breakouts in Forex

One of the most useful tools employed by experienced Forex traders is price consolidation breakouts. Consolidation occurs during a period of indecision which ends when the price of the asset breaks beyond the restrictive barriers. Periods of consolidation can be found in charts covering any time interval and these periods can last for minutes, days, months or even years. In times of true consolidation, market prices won’t fluctuate at all.

Price consolidation in Forex occurs when there is no obvious uptrend or downtrend in short-term time frames. During a ranging market, prices are still fluctuating up and down and so are not considered to be consolidating. During true price consolidation, prices will normally stay within a 10 to 15 pip range.

During consolidation, the levels of resistance and support are designated by the upper and lower limits of the stock’s price. Volatility increases when the price of the asset breaks through the identified areas of support or resistance. At that point, the opportunity for short-term traders to generate a profit also increases. Novice Forex traders should learn strategies from experienced traders, you can find them on forex brokers review.

forex brokers review

Breakouts

A popular mode of trading is entering a trade when prices break out of the highest or lowest price of the consolidation. When the price breaks up, a trader will enter a buy order; when the price breaks downwards, he/she will enter a sell order. Trading on breakouts assumes that the momentum of the break is solid enough to continue the movement in the same direction. The difficulty results from deciding when to exit a trade once it is in the money, as sometimes breakouts reverse directions rapidly. A good rule of thumb is to wait for a profit of 30 pips and then pull out. Some traders wait till they reach 50 pips but this is taking extra risk. learn strategies from experienced traders on courses such as FXAcademy that teach tools and trading strategies.

Are trading skills necessary?

It is tempting to think that you need a lot of skills to take part in trading the markets and to some extent this is true. If you are going to trade then it would be wise to know something about it before you start. You need to know what you are getting in to and have some confidence in what you are doing.

Some people use a financial advisor to help them with this. They get them to explain the ins and outs to them and use their knowledge to help them to decide what to do. They may take a commission or charge but they could save a lot of time in research. Others may choose to invest in a managed fund where someone else will make the decisions as to where the funds are put. A fund manager will also charge though and some would prefer not to pay that charge.

trading skills

If you do want to go it alone and make the decisions about what to trade yourself then it is wise to know a bit about trading. It is good to know about the different options that you have and make sure that you have an understanding about which is the best to choose. You will need to know a bit about the market and what trends it has seen in order to make a confident decision as to what to trade.

You may feel that things are just too unpredictable and decide to have a guess without very much knowledge. This is something that you may feel happy doing and just have some fun with it. Many of us have heard about the mistakes that the so called experts have made over the years and so it can be tempting to just have a go and see what happens.

Can Students and Forex Ever Mix?

Are you thinking about getting into forex, but you’re a student? You might have a lot of people telling you that getting interested in forex is ridiculous. After all, students can’t really do too terribly much. It’s not like you can get a standard lot of 100,000 units. However, you can get smaller account sizes than that.

Units refer to the base currency being traded. So GBP/USD would be worth 100,000 GBP, where GBP is the base currency. The base currency is always referenced first.

getting into forex

There are mini lots of 10,000 units, along with micro lots of 1,000 units. Mini and micro lots are offered to traders who open mini accounts (which average from $2000 to $1000). Standard lot sizes can be traded with larger accounts only. The small lots aren’t going to bring you massive profits, but it will be enough to cover the losses that you face. You really need to make sure that you’re looking at the type of account that’s going to work with your budget. A mini account usually has a minimum of $500.

Before you can even think about trading live, you need to make sure that you’ve been using a demo account. You have to protect yourself from heavy losses, and that means that you’re going to have some problems in terms of getting things done. You just need to make sure that you’re focused on getting things taken care of in a certain way. Rushing through the papertrading phase of your life as a forex investor just isn’t smart.

But let’s get back to lots and risk, so you can get a full picture of what’s going on.

A trader stands to lose $0.10 per pip on a micro lot. That’s not too terrible much money, which is a good thing. You can’t avoid all risks completely in forex trading — oh, don’t we wish — but you certainly can lower risks greatly.

The key to being a forex student is to make sure that you’re not rushing into trades. Read extensively. The big forex investors read a lot of material before they think that they can just invest in the market. You really want to make sure that you get things done. You want to always make sure that you are working as diligently as you can in order to get the most return on your money. There’s no greater investment than educating yourself on how markets really work. You don’t want to rush in, and you certainly don’t want to just make guesses. A lot of forex blogs are going to tell you that it’s okay to go with your gut, but that’s not a good thing at all.

Take it slowly, and you’ll find that you really can become a forex trader…even as a student!